Midget installation for production of fertilizings represents a 200-liter puncheon with hermetically closed cap. The puncheon are left with a flexible gas hose pipe for tap of produced gas. The electric heater is built in a puncheon with a temperature controller, hand-operated system of hashing. From below flanks there is an offtake pipe with the cock. The puncheon is coated by bed of warming.
Most easier to dispose installation in any shed. As sheds usually are not heated, the variant of installation with warming is chosen.
Installation is powered by a usual 220V electric circuit. The flexible gas hose pipe is necessary to put in jar with water.
Installation should be disposed so that it was possible to substitute under an offtake pipe container for assembly of ready fertilizings.
The first batch of installation should be made by a cow dung. Or the cow dung should be present at appreciable amount in the first batch. Also it is possible at opportunity to take some fresh biofertilizings and to add them to the first batch. All this is necessary to bring culture of anaerobic bacteria in a reactor.
The reactor refuels in the upper hole at the removed upper cap. It is necessary to fill with its small rations of raw material, filling in with their warm water and mixing hand-operated system of hashing. The consistence of normally prepared intermixture should correspond to liquid sour cream. It is necessary to fill in a reactor on 80 % of volume. After that it is necessary to clear carefully a priming hole and hermetically to close a cap. A gas hose pipe put in jar with water, turn on the power supply of electric heaters.
To mix raw material in a reactor it is necessary not less than 4 times a day, but also it is not too often. Response can begin later week when anaerobic bacteria will be multiplied in enough. The cycle of fermentation can last from 10 till 30 days. The end of a cycle of fermentation can be determined on the arrest of occurrence of blisters of gas in jar with water. It is possible to consider the first ration of fertilizings ready.
Two thirds of fertilizers in a reactor are necessary for draining off and in the further to use as required. Then the reactor is filled in with a fresh intermixture, and the cycle repeats.
Supply with necessary amount of raw material such installation can: 1 pig, 15-20 hens. One cow can supply with raw material from 12 to 20 such installations.
To organize sale of the biofertilizings made by midget installation in a commercial scale hardly it will be possible, therefore it is better to count economic benefit on an incremental value of agricultural production at utilization of these fertilizings.
For a year such installation will make 2920 litres of biofertilizings. They should suffice for processing 25000 square meters of a garden.
If to take for an example a potato usual productivity will make 160 kg with 100 square meters. Utilization of biofertilizings reduces a period of vegetation by 2 weeks and increases productivity of a potato by 15%-35%. Therefore at utilization of biofertilizings in climatic conditions of Ukraine 2 crops of a potato in a year gather, i.e. there is an incremental value of productivity almost in 2,5 times. Considering expenses for the second period of vegetation, from application of fertilizings it is possible to count an incremental value in 100%, i.e. 160 kg of a potato with 100 square meters, or 40 tons of a potato from one midget installation. At the minimum cost of kilogramme of a potato 0,2 USD for kilogramme, profit on application of biofertilizings will make 8000 USD. Even if to consider this sum overestimated in 10 time all the same the profit on application of biofertilizings for one season will overlap with interest cost of installation.
6-cubes biogas installation consists from a 300 litres container for preparation of raw material, a feeding system of raw material, two consistently paired reactors on 3 cubic meters each with systems of electroheating, mixing and warming, system of drainage of raw material, a gas-holder of 1 cubic metre, gas system and the block of automatics.
For placement of installation there is enough platform 6õ6 square meters. The platform is recommended to be concreted. On angles of the platform it is necessary to put poles on which to reinforce a light roof. From one of poles it is necessary to lift a lightning rod, also to make a contour of ground connection. The platform is desirable for closing an enclosuring. It is necessary to bring water and the three-phase power supply 380V to the platform. Wires of the power supply should be calculated for a current up to 25A.
In one angle of the platform it is necessary to establish the platform welded from metal corners in height about 2,5 m with a ladder downwards. On the platform the preparatory container will be installed.
In an installation site of a gas-holder it is necessary to wall metal loops in a concrete floor for fixation of an axis of a gas-holder.
From preparatory container the sewer approaches to bottom of the first reactor. The second reactor is installed near to the first and connected to it approximately on the middle of height. From bottom of the first and second reactors systems of drainage are installed. In the first reactor it is for the emergency, and in second - nominal. In free part of the platform the gas-holder is placed. On the platform for preparation of raw material the block of automatics and gas system is installed.
Before the first start in both of a reactor it is necessary to fill in\ 4,8 cubic meters of the prepared intermixture. For the first batch presence at an intermixture of a significant amount of a dung of large beeves or other raw material containing anaerobic bacteria is desirable. To prepare for an intermixture it is possible, using the following table:
||Daily average amount of a dung, kg/day
||Dampness of a dung, %
||Necessary amount of water per 100 kg of a dung, litres
||Daily average amount of excrement, kg/day
||Dampness of excrement, %/th>
||Necessary amount of water on 100 kg of excrement, litres
Excrement are an intermixture of a dung and urine which gathers on farms.
The first batch is made by rations approximately on 250 l the intermixture prepared according to the table. After filling reactors the block of automatics turns on and the warming up of an intermixture up to working temperature begins. On operating duty installation can leave in a week after the first batch.
First two complete gas-holders of gas are necessary for pitting, as in them there will be the initial air remained in reactors and a carbon dioxide, evolved in the beginning of response. After that installation passes in a standard duty. Biogas can use. Every day it is necessary to drain off 240 litres of slimes after mixing contents of reactors, and in exchange to fill in 240 litres of a fresh intermixture. If in a gas-holder is more than 240 litres of gas it is possible to drain off all over again, and then - to fill in. If it is not enough gas, to fill in and drain off it is necessary simultaneously.
For maintenance of biogas installation with raw material there are enough 2-3 cows, 25-30 pigs, 450-500 hens. Daily allowances production of biogas will make 6,5 cubic metre for a dung of cows, 11 cubic metre for a hog manure, 12 cubic metre for a poultry excreta.
These numerals are given for a mesophilic duty of installation at 35°Ñ. For a thermophilic duty the gas discharge will increase approximately in 2 times, also in 2 times the cycle, and, accordingly, a daily batch will be accelerated by raw material will increase up to 480 litres. But thus the rate of flux of the electric power on heating of reactors will grow. If at a mesophilic duty such installation will monthly consume an electricity on 5-10 USD, depending on the tariff of payment in a thermophilic regime it will consume the electric power on 16-32 USD in a month.
Produced amount of biogas will be enough for heating, for example, well warmed individual house heated by the modern gas boiler.
6-cubes biogas installation will produce 240 litres of biofertilizings day. In a year the yield of fertilizings will make 87,6 tons that is enough for fertilizing, for example, 218 hectares of wheat. The incremental value of productivity thus will make from 10 up to 35 additional
hundredweights per hectare. At the minimum cost of wheat 60 USD for ton the additional profit will make more than 13000 USD.
The market value of ton of such fertilizings equals approximately 120 USD for ton. If to organize sales of fertilizings the income will make 10512 USD.
Cost of such installation with installation and delivery equals 9900 USD. Annual rates of flux on electricity - a maximum 120 USD. Thus, in any event installation pays off for one season.
80-cubes the biogas installatin consists from 3,8-cubes cans for preparation of raw material with system of stirring, system of a preheating and the fecal pump, systems of feed of raw material in reactors with a hydrogate, 2 reactors on 40 cubic meters, incorporated consistently, a dry gas holder on 2 cubic meters working volume, system plum of a raw sludge with a hydrogate, gas system, system of stirring in each reactor, the gas boiler, pumps and tubes of water heating in each reactor, warmings of reactors, the block of automatics. Optional it can be completed with co-genertion installation by output electric power of 8 kW.
For housing installation the platform the sizes 10õ8 meters is necessary. The platform should be concreted. It should be supplied by grounding and a lightning rod. To it should be brought the water pipeline and wires of the power supply. Near to the platform there should be a lagoon for plum of weak biofertilizings.
In a staying point of a gas holder it is necessary to wall metallic loops in a concrete floor for bracing an axis of a gas holder.
From the fecal pump of preparatory can the gullet approach to system of feed of raw material of the first reactor. Reactors are connected one another by a tube. All reactors are equipped by emergency response systems plum. The second reactor is equipped by system plum with a hydrogate. Thus, the raw material moves on reactors under the law of connected receptacles.
Near to reactors the gas holder, and near to can of preparation - the block of automatics and the gas boiler is established.
For the first time installation refuels in summertime. The mixture for a refill is prepared the same as it is described for the previous installation
. After a while installation starts to work in a psychrophilic regime. After an initiation of abjection of biogas of a gas holder of two working volumes are pitted to let release the waste of air and initial carbon dioxide. After appearance of stable abjection of combustible biogas gas heating reactors turns on. The temperature gradually, on degree a day is possible up to a mesophilic regime (35 degrees). After that installation starts to work in a regular regime. For the raw material consisting from cow or pork manure, duration of a cycle makes 20 days. 1 ton of manure and 1,5 cubes of water is loaded per day in preparatory can. The raw material mixs up, and then the fecal pump under the set program in the little portions within day adds it in the first reactor. Synchronously with it the overfermented raw sludge from the last reactor merges.
For provision of installation by raw material there are enough 25-35 cows, 200-300 pigs. The daily output of biogas will make from 105 cubic meters for cow manure, from 160 cubic meters for a pig manure. From 5 % up to 30 % of biogas depending on temperature of air it will be used for maintenance of temperature of raw material in reactors of a biogas installation in a mesophilic regime. If to switch installation in a thermophilic regime up to 50 % of biogas will leave on maintenance of this regime, but all processes will go to 2 times faster. For start of installation in a cold season, it can be in addition equipped by electrical system of a preheating.
The 80-cubes biogas installation produces 2374 kg of biofertilizing per day or 866,5 tons per year. On the average it is enough this quantity for processing of 433 hectares. If to sow, for example wheat, up to an additional accretion of yielding ability will make from 10 up to 35 centners per hectare. At a minimum value of wheat 60 USD for ton, the minimal profit on utilization of biofertilizings will make 25980 USD. At correct selection from cultures the profit can be increased in some times. Still there is a biogas which is produced in day from 105 cubic meters. It is equivalent 68 cubic meters of a natural gas. For a year it will make an equivalent 24820 cubic meters of a natural gas. The profit on gas depends on a method of its application.
Value of a 80-cubes biogas installation makes nearby 46000 USD. In this case the recoupment of installation during one-two seasons is provided